Rule 1.15. SAFEKEEPING PROPERTY
(a) A lawyer shall hold property of clients or third persons that is in a lawyer’s possession in connection with a representation separate from the lawyer’s own property. Funds shall be deposited in one or more separate and identifiable interest- or dividend- bearing client trust accounts maintained at an eligible financial institution in the state where the lawyer’s office is situated, or elsewhere with the informed consent of the client or third person. For the purposes of this Rule, a client trust account means an IOLTA account as defined in paragraph (j)(2), or a separate, interest-bearing non-IOLTA client trust account established to hold the funds of a client or third person as provided in paragraph (f). Funds of clients or third persons shall not be deposited in a non-interest-bearing or non-dividend- bearing account. Other, tangible property shall be identified as such and appropriately safeguarded. Complete records of client trust account funds and other property shall be kept by the lawyer and shall be preserved for a period of seven years after termination of the representation.
Maintenance of complete records of client trust accounts shall require that a lawyer:
(1) prepare and maintain receipt and disbursement journals for all client trust accounts required by this Rule containing a record of deposits and withdrawals from client trust accounts specifically identifying the date, source, and description of each item deposited, and the date, payee and purpose of each disbursement;
(2) prepare and maintain contemporaneous ledger records for all client trust accounts showing, for each separate trust client or beneficiary, the source of all funds deposited, the date of each deposit, the names of all persons for whom the funds are or were held, the amount of such funds, the dates, descriptions and amounts of charges or withdrawals, and the names of all persons to whom such funds were disbursed;
(3) maintain copies of all accountings to clients or third persons showing the disbursement of funds to them or on their behalf, along with copies of those portions of clients’ files that are reasonably necessary for a complete understanding of the financial transactions pertaining to them;
(4) maintain all client trust account checkbook registers, check stubs, bank statements, records of deposit, and checks or other records of debits;
(5) maintain copies of all retainer and compensation agreements with clients;
(6) maintain copies of all bills rendered to clients for legal fees and expenses;
(7) prepare and maintain reconciliation reports of all client trust accounts, on at least a quarterly basis, including reconciliations of ledger balances with client trust account balances;
(8) make appropriate arrangements for the maintenance of the records in the event of the closing, sale, dissolution, or merger of a law practice.
Records required by this Rule may be maintained by electronic, photographic, or other media provided that printed copies can be produced, and the records are readily accessible to the lawyer.
Each client trust account shall be maintained only in an eligible financial institution selected by the lawyer in the exercise of ordinary prudence.
(b) A lawyer may deposit the lawyer’s own funds in a client trust account for the sole purpose of paying bank service charges on that account, but only in an amount necessary for that purpose.
(c) A lawyer shall deposit in a client trust account funds received to secure payment of legal fees and expenses, to be withdrawn by the lawyer only as fees are earned and expenses incurred. Funds received as a fixed fee, a general retainer, or an advance payment retainer shall be deposited in the lawyer’s general account or other account belonging to the lawyer. An advance payment retainer may be used only when necessary to accomplish some purpose for the client that cannot be accomplished by using a security retainer. An agreement for an advance payment retainer shall be in a writing signed by the client that uses the term “advance payment retainer” to describe the retainer, and states the following:
(1) the special purpose for the advance payment retainer and an explanation why it is advantageous to the client;
(2) that the retainer will not be held in a client trust account, that it will become the property of the lawyer upon payment, and that it will be deposited in the lawyer’s general account;
(3) the manner in which the retainer will be applied for services rendered and expenses incurred;
(4) that any portion of the retainer that is not earned or required for expenses will be refunded to the client;
(5) that the client has the option to employ a security retainer, provided, however, that if the lawyer is unwilling to represent the client without receiving an advance payment retainer, the agreement must so state and provide the lawyer’s reasons for that condition.
(d) Upon receiving funds or other property in which a client or third person has an interest, a lawyer shall promptly notify the client or third person. Except as stated in this Rule or otherwise permitted by law or by agreement with the client, a lawyer shall promptly deliver to the client or third person any funds or other property that the client or third person is entitled to receive and, upon request by the client or third person, shall promptly render a full accounting regarding such property.
(e) When in the course of representation a lawyer is in possession of property in which two or more persons (one of whom may be the lawyer) claim interests, the property shall be kept separate by the lawyer until the dispute is resolved. The lawyer shall promptly distribute all portions of the property as to which the interests are not in dispute.
(f) All funds of clients or third persons held by a lawyer or law firm which are nominal in amount or are expected to be held for a short period of time, including advances for costs and expenses, and funds belonging in part to a client or third person and in part presently or potentially to the lawyer or law firm, shall be deposited in one or more IOLTA accounts, as defined in paragraph (j)(2). A lawyer or law firm shall deposit all funds of clients or third persons which are not nominal in amount or expected to be held for a short period of time into a separate interest- or dividend-bearing client trust account with the client designated as income beneficiary. Funds of clients or third persons shall not be deposited in a non-interest-bearing or non-dividend-bearing account. Each IOLTA account shall comply with the following provisions:
(1) Each lawyer or law firm in receipt of nominal or short-term client funds shall establish one or more IOLTA accounts with an eligible financial institution authorized by federal or state law to do business in the state of Illinois and which offers IOLTA accounts within the requirements of this Rule as administered by the Lawyers Trust Fund of Illinois.
(2) Eligible institutions shall maintain IOLTA accounts that pay the highest interest rate or dividend available from the institution to its non-IOLTA account customers when IOLTA accounts meet or exceed the same minimum balance or other account eligibility guidelines, if any. In determining the highest interest rate or dividend generally available from the institution to its non-IOLTA accounts, eligible institutions may consider factors, in addition to the IOLTA account balance, customarily considered by the institution when setting interest rates or dividends for its customers, provided that such factors do not discriminate between IOLTA accounts and accounts of non- IOLTA customers, and that these factors do not include that the account is an IOLTA account.
(3) An IOLTA account that meets the highest comparable rate or dividend standard set forth in paragraph (f)(2) must use one of the identified account options as an IOLTA account, or pay the equivalent yield on an existing IOLTA account in lieu of using the highest-yield bank product:
(a) a checking account paying preferred interest rates, such as money market or indexed rates, or any other suitable interest-bearing deposit account offered by the eligible institution to its non-IOLTA customers.
(b) for accounts with balances of $100,000 or more, a business checking account with automated investment feature, such as an overnight sweep and investment in repurchase agreements fully collateralized by U.S. Government securities as defined in paragraph (h).
(c) for accounts with balances of $100,000 or more, a money market fund with, or tied to, check-writing capacity, that must be solely invested in U.S. Government securities or securities fully collateralized by U.S. Government securities, and that has total assets of at least $250 million.
(4) As an alternative to the account options in paragraph (f)(3), the financial institution may pay a “safe harbor” yield equal to 70% of the Federal Funds Target Rate or 1.0%, whichever is higher.
(5) Each lawyer or law firm shall direct the eligible financial institution to remit monthly earnings on the IOLTA account directly to the Lawyers Trust Fund of Illinois. For each individual IOLTA account, the eligible financial institution shall provide: a statement transmitted with each remittance showing the name of the lawyer or law firm directing that the remittance be sent; the account number; the remittance period; the rate of interest applied; the account balance on which the interest was calculated; the reasonable service fee(s) if any; the gross earnings for the remittance period; and the net amount of earnings remitted. Remittances shall be sent to the Lawyers Trust Fund electronically unless otherwise agreed. The financial institution may assess only allowable reasonable fees, as defined in paragraph (j)(8). Fees in excess of the earnings accrued on an individual IOLTA account for any month shall not be taken from earnings accrued on other IOLTA accounts or from the principal of the account.
(g) A lawyer or law firm should exercise reasonable judgment in determining whether funds of a client or third person are nominal in amount or are expected to be held for a short period of time. No charge of ethical impropriety or other breach of professional conduct shall attend to a lawyer’s or law firm’s exercise of reasonable judgment under this rule or decision to place client funds in an IOLTA account or a non-IOLTA client trust account on the basis of that determination. Ordinarily, in determining the type of account into which to deposit particular funds for a client or third person, a lawyer or a law firm shall take into consideration the following factors:
(1) the amount of interest which the funds would earn during the period they are expected to be held and the likelihood of delay in the relevant transaction or proceeding;
(2) the cost of establishing and administering the account, including the cost of the lawyer’s services;
(3) the capability of the financial institution, through subaccounting, to calculate and pay interest earned by each client’s funds, net of any transaction costs, to the individual client.
(h) All trust accounts, whether IOLTA or non-IOLTA, shall be established in compliance with the following provisions on dishonored instrument notification:
(1) A lawyer shall maintain trust accounts only in eligible financial institutions that have filed with the Attorney Registration and Disciplinary Commission an agreement, in a form provided by the Commission, to report to the Commission in the event any properly payable instrument is presented against a client trust account containing insufficient funds, irrespective of whether or not the instrument is honored. Any such agreement shall apply to all branches of the financial institution and shall not be canceled except upon 30 days notice in writing to the Commission. The Commission shall annually publish a list of financial institutions that have agreed to comply with this rule and shall establish rules and procedures governing amendments to the list.
(2) The overdraft notification agreement shall provide that all reports made by the financial institution shall be in the following format:
(a) In the case of a dishonored instrument, the report shall be identical to the overdraft notice customarily forwarded to the depositor, and should include a copy of the dishonored instrument, if such a copy is normally provided to depositors; and
(b) In the case of instruments that are presented against insufficient funds but which instruments are honored, the report shall identify the financial institution, the lawyer or law firm, the account number, the date of presentation for payment and the date paid, as well as the amount of overdraft created thereby.
Such reports shall be made simultaneously with, and within the time provided by law for, notice of dishonor, if any. If an instrument presented against insufficient funds is honored, then the report shall be made within five banking days of the date of presentation for payment against insufficient funds.
(3) Every lawyer practicing or admitted to practice in this jurisdiction shall, as a condition thereof, be conclusively deemed to have consented to the reporting and production requirements mandated by this Rule.
(4) Nothing herein shall preclude a financial institution from charging a particular lawyer or law firm for the reasonable cost of producing the reports and records required by paragraph (h) of this Rule. Fees charged for the reasonable cost of producing the reports and records required by paragraph (h) are the sole responsibility of the lawyer or law firm, and are not allowable reasonable fees for IOLTA accounts as those are defined in paragraph (j)(8).
(i) A lawyer who learns of unidentified funds in an IOLTA account must make periodic efforts to identify and return the funds to the rightful owner. If after 12 months of the discovery of the unidentified funds the lawyer determines that ascertaining the ownership or securing the return of the funds will not succeed, the lawyer must remit the funds to the Lawyers Trust Fund of Illinois. No charge of ethical impropriety or other breach of professional conduct shall attend to a lawyer’s exercise of reasonable judgment under this paragraph (i).
A lawyer who either remits funds in error or later ascertains the ownership of remitted funds may make a claim to the Lawyers Trust Fund, which after verification of the claim will return the funds to the lawyer.
(1) “Funds” denotes any form of money, including cash, payment instruments such as checks, money orders or sales drafts, and electronic fund transfers.
(2) “IOLTA account” means a pooled interest- or dividend-bearing client trust account, established with an eligible financial institution with the Lawyers Trust Fund of Illinois designated as income beneficiary, for the deposit of nominal or short-term funds of clients or third persons as defined in paragraph (f) and from which funds may be withdrawn upon request as soon as permitted by law.
(3) “Eligible financial institution” is a bank or a savings bank insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or an open-end investment company registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission that agrees to provide dishonored instrument notification regarding any type of client trust account as provided in paragraph (h) of this Rule; and that with respect to IOLTA accounts, offers IOLTA accounts within the requirements of paragraph (f) of this Rule.
(4) “Properly payable” refers to an instrument which, if presented in the normal course of business, is in a form requiring payment under the laws of this jurisdiction.
(5) “Money market fund” is an investment company registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, that is qualified to hold itself out to investors as a money market fund or the equivalent of a money market fund under Rules and Regulations adopted by the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to said Act.
(6) “U.S. Government securities” refers to U.S. Treasury obligations and obligations issued by or guaranteed as to principal and interest by any AAA-rated United States agency or instrumentality thereof. A daily overnight financial repurchase agreement (“repo”) may be established only with an institution that is deemed to be “well capitalized” or “adequately capitalized” as defined by applicable federal statutes and regulations.
(7) “Safe harbor” is a yield that if paid by the financial institution on IOLTA accounts shall be deemed as a comparable return in compliance with this Rule. Such yield shall be calculated as 70% of the Federal Funds Target Rate as reported in the Wall Street Journal on the first business day of the calendar month.
(8) “Allowable reasonable fees” for IOLTA accounts are per-check charges, per deposit charges, a fee in lieu of a minimum balance, federal deposit insurance fees, automated investment (“sweep”) fees, and a reasonable maintenance fee, if those fees are charged on comparable accounts maintained by non-IOLTA depositors. All other fees are the responsibility of, and may be charged to, the lawyer or law firm maintaining the IOLTA account.
(9) “Unidentified funds” are amounts accumulated in an IOLTA account that cannot be documented as belonging to a client, a third person, or the lawyer or law firm.
(k) In the closing of a real estate transaction, a lawyer’s disbursement of funds deposited but not collected shall not violate his or her duty pursuant to this Rule 1.15 if, prior to the closing, the lawyer has established a segregated Real Estate Funds Account (REFA) maintained solely for the receipt and disbursement of such funds, has deposited such funds into a REFA, and:
(1) is acting as a closing agent pursuant to an insured closing letter for a title insurance company licensed in the State of Illinois and uses for such funds a segregated REFA maintained solely for such title insurance business; or
(2) has met the “good-funds” requirements. The good-funds requirements shall be met if the bank in which the REFA was established has agreed in a writing directed to the lawyer to honor all disbursement orders drawn on that REFA for all transactions up to a specified dollar amount not less than the total amount being deposited in good funds. Good funds shall include only the following forms of deposits: (a) a certified check, (b) a check issued by the State of Illinois, the United States, or a political subdivision of the State of Illinois or the United States, (c) a cashier’s check, teller’s check, bank money order, or official bank check drawn on or issued by a financial institution insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or a comparable agency of the federal or state government, (d) a check drawn on the trust account of any lawyer or real estate broker licensed under the laws of any state, (e) a personal check or checks in an aggregate amount not exceeding $5,000 per closing if the lawyer making the deposit has reasonable and prudent grounds to believe that the deposit will be irrevocably credited to the REFA, (f) a check drawn on the account of or issued by a lender approved by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development as either a supervised or a nonsupervised mortgagee as defined in 24 C.F.R. § 202.2, (g) a check from a title insurance company licensed in the State of Illinois, or from a title insurance agent of the title insurance company, provided that the title insurance company has guaranteed the funds of that title insurance agent. Without limiting the rights of the lawyer against any person, it shall be the responsibility of the disbursing lawyer to reimburse the trust account for such funds that are not collected and for any fees, charges and interest assessed by the paying bank on account of such funds being uncollected.
Adopted July 1, 2009, effective January 1, 2010; amended July 1, 2011, effective September 1, 2011; amended April 7, 2015, eff. July 1, 2015.
 A lawyer should hold property of others with the care required of a professional fiduciary. Securities should be kept in a safe deposit box, except when some other form of safekeeping is warranted by special circumstances. All property that is the property of clients or third persons, including prospective clients, must be kept separate from the lawyer’s business and personal property and, if monies, in one or more client trust accounts. Client trust accounts should be made identifiable through their designation as “client trust account” or “client funds account” or words of similar import indicating the fiduciary nature of the account. Separate trust accounts may be warranted when administering estate monies or acting in similar fiduciary capacities. A lawyer should maintain on a current basis complete records of client trust account funds as required by paragraph (a), including subparagraphs (1) through (8). These requirements articulate recordkeeping principles that provide direction to a lawyer in the handling of funds entrusted to the lawyer by a client or third person. Compliance with these requirements will benefit the attorney and the client or third party as these fiduciary funds will be safeguarded and documentation will be available to fulfill the lawyer’s fiduciary obligation to provide an accounting to the owners of the funds and to refute any charge that the funds were handled improperly.
 While normally it is impermissible to commingle the lawyer’s own funds with client funds, paragraph (b) provides that it is permissible when necessary to pay bank service charges on that account. Accurate records must be kept regarding which part of the funds are the lawyer’s.
 Lawyers often receive funds from which the lawyer’s fee will be paid. The lawyer is not required to remit to the client funds that the lawyer reasonably believes represent fees owed. However, a lawyer may not hold funds to coerce a client into accepting the lawyer’s contention. The disputed portion of the funds must be kept in a trust account and the lawyer should suggest means for prompt resolution of the dispute, such as arbitration. The undisputed portion of the funds shall be promptly distributed. Specific guidance concerning client trust accounts is provided in the Client Trust Account Handbook published by the Illinois Attorney Registration and Disciplinary Commission as well as on the website of the Illinois Attorney Registration and Disciplinary Commission.
[3A] Paragraph (c) relates to legal fees and expenses that have been paid in advance. The reasonableness, structure, and division of legal fees are governed by Rule 1.5 and other applicable law.
[3B] Paragraph (c) must be read in conjunction with Dowling v. Chicago Options Associates, Inc., 226 Ill. 2d 277 (2007). In Dowling, the Court distinguished different types of retainers. It recognized advance payment retainers and approved their use in limited circumstances where the lawyer and client agree that a retainer should become the property of the lawyer upon payment. Prior to Dowling, the Court recognized only two types of retainers. The first, a general retainer (also described as a “true,” “engagement,” or “classic” retainer) is paid by a client to the lawyer in order to ensure the lawyer’s availability during a specific period of time or for a specific matter. This type of retainer is earned when paid and immediately becomes property of the lawyer, regardless of whether the lawyer ever actually performs any services for the client. The second, a “security” retainer, secures payment for future services and expense, and must be deposited in a client trust account pursuant to paragraph (a). Funds in a security retainer remain the property of the client until applied for services rendered or expenses incurred. Any unapplied funds are refunded to the client. Any written retainer agreement should clearly define the kind of retainer being paid. If the parties agree that the client will pay a security retainer, that term should be used in any written agreement, which should also provide that the funds remain the property of the client until applied for services rendered or expenses incurred and that the funds will be deposited in a client trust account. If the parties’ intent is not evident, an agreement for a retainer will be construed as providing for a security retainer.
[3C] An advance payment retainer is a present payment to the lawyer in exchange for the commitment to provide legal services in the future. Ownership of this retainer passes to the lawyer immediately upon payment; and the retainer may not be deposited into a client trust account because a lawyer may not commingle property of a client with the lawyer’s own property. However, any portion of an advance payment retainer that is not earned must be refunded to the client. An advance payment retainer should be used sparingly, only when necessary to accomplish a purpose for the client that cannot be accomplished by using a security retainer. An advance payment retainer agreement must be in a written agreement signed by the client that contains the elements listed in paragraph (c). An advance payment retainer is distinguished from a fixed fee (also described as a “flat” or “lump-sum” fee), where the lawyer agrees to provide a specific service (e.g., defense of a criminal charge, a real estate closing, or preparation of a will or trust) for a fixed amount. Unlike an advance payment retainer, a fixed fee is generally not subject to the obligation to refund any portion to the client, although a fixed fee is subject, like all fees, to the requirement of Rule 1.5(a) that a lawyer may not charge or collect an unreasonable fee.
[3D] The type of retainer that is appropriate will depend on the circumstances of each case. The guiding principle in the choice of the type of retainer is protection of the client’s interests. In the vast majority of cases, this will dictate that funds paid to retain a lawyer will be considered a security retainer and placed in a client trust account, pursuant to this Rule.
 Paragraph (e) also recognizes that third parties may have lawful claims against specific funds or other property in a lawyer’s custody, such as a client’s creditor who has a lien on funds recovered in a personal injury action. A lawyer may have a duty under applicable law to protect such third-party claims against wrongful interference by the client. In such cases, when the third-party claim is not frivolous under applicable law, the lawyer must refuse to surrender the property to the client until the claims are resolved. A lawyer should not unilaterally assume to arbitrate a dispute between the client and the third party, but, when there are substantial grounds for dispute as to the person entitled to the funds, the lawyer may file an action to have a court resolve the dispute.
 The obligations of a lawyer under this Rule are independent of those arising from activity other than rendering legal services. For example, a lawyer who serves only as an escrow agent is governed by the applicable law relating to fiduciaries even though the lawyer does not render legal services in the transaction and is not governed by this Rule.
 Paragraphs (a), (f) and (g) require that nominal or short-term funds belonging to clients or third persons be deposited in one or more IOLTA accounts as defined in paragraph (j)(2) and provide that the interest earned on any such accounts shall be submitted to the Lawyers Trust Fund of Illinois. The Lawyers Trust Fund of Illinois will disburse the funds so received to qualifying organizations and programs to be used for the purposes set forth in its by-laws. The purposes of the Lawyers Trust Fund of Illinois may not be changed without the approval of the Supreme Court of Illinois. The decision as to whether funds are nominal or short-term shall be in the reasonable judgment of the depositing lawyer or law firm. Client and third-person funds that are neither nominal or short-term shall be deposited in separate, interest- or dividend-bearing client trust accounts for the benefit of the client as set forth in paragraphs (a) and (f).
 Paragraph (h) requires that lawyers maintain trust accounts only in financial institutions that have agreed to report trust account overdrafts to the ARDC. The trust account overdraft notification program is intended to provide early detection of problems in lawyers’ trust accounts, so that errors by lawyers and/or banks may be corrected and serious lawyer transgressions pursued.
 Paragraph (i) applies when accumulated balances in an IOLTA account cannot be documented as belonging to an identifiable client or third party, or to the lawyer or law firm. This paragraph provides a mechanism for a lawyer to remove these funds from an IOLTA accounts when, in the lawyer’s reasonable judgment, further efforts to account for them after a period of 12 months are not likely to be successful. This procedure facilitates the effective management of IOLTA accounts by lawyers; addresses situations where an IOLTA account becomes the responsibility of a lawyer’s successor, law partner, or heir; and supports the provision of civil legal aid in Illinois.
The Lawyers Trust Fund of Illinois will publish instructions for lawyers remitting unidentified funds. Proceeds of unidentified funds received under paragraph (i) will be distributed to qualifying organizations and programs according to the purposes set forth in the by-laws of the Lawyers Trust Fund. When a lawyer learns that funds have been remitted in error or later identifies the owner of remitted funds, the lawyer may make a claim to the Lawyers Trust Fund for the return of the funds. After verification of the claim, the Lawyer Trust Fund will return the funds to the lawyer who then ensures the funds are restored to the owner.
Paragraph (i) relates only to unidentified funds, for which no owner can be ascertained. Unclaimed funds in client trust accounts – funds whose owner is known but have not been claimed – should be handled according to applicable statutes including the Uniform Disposition of Unclaimed Property Act (765 ILCS 1025 et seq.).
 Paragraph (j) provides definitions that pertain specifically to Rule 1.15. Paragraph (1) defines expansively the meaning of “funds,” to include any form of money, including electronic fund transfers. Paragraph (2) defines an IOLTA account and paragraph (3) defines an eligible financial institution for purposes of the overdraft notification and IOLTA programs. Paragraph (4) defines “properly payable,” a term used in the overdraft notification provisions in paragraph (h)(1). Paragraphs (5) through (8) define terms pertaining to IOLTA accounts. Paragraph (9) defines “unidentified funds” as that term is used in paragraph (i).
 Paragraph (k) applies only to the closing of real estate transactions and adopts the “good-funds” doctrine. That doctrine provides for the disbursement of funds deposited but not yet collected if the lawyer has already established an appropriate Real Estate Funds Account and otherwise fulfills all of the requirements contained in the Rule.
Adopted July 1, 2009, effective January 1, 2010; amended July 1, 2011, effective September 1, 2011; amended April 7, 2015, eff. July 1, 2015.